Development and Validation of a Human-Body Mathematical Model for Simulation of Car-Pedestrian Impacts
Paper i proceeding, 1997
The aim of this study was to develop a 3D mathematical model of the human body to simulate
responses of pedestrians in car impacts with emphasis on the lower extremities and the head. The
model, implemented by using MADYMO-GEBOD program, consists of fifteen body segments
connected by fourteen joints, including two human-like knee joints and two breakable leg segments
which allow to simulate the knee responses associated with leg fracture.
The model was verified by using published sled impact tests with cadavers in terms of kinematics
of the pedestrian substitutes, accelerations of the body segments, and failure description from
anatomical investigations of the pedestrian substitutes. The sensitivity of the model to input variables
was studied at impact speeds of 15 and 40 km/h with the following parameters: bumper height,
bumper stiffness, bumper lead distance, height of hood-edge, hood-edge stiffness, and impact speed.
The validated model demonstrated its capability in simulations of car-pedestrian impacts to predict risk
of pedestrian injuries and to develop safety countermeasures for pedestrian protection.