Combining Variation Simulation With Welding Simulation for Prediction of Deformation and Variation of a Final Assembly
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2012

In most variation simulations, i.e., simulations of geometric variations in assemblies, the influence from heating and cooling processes, generated when two parts are welded together, is not taken into consideration. In most welding simulations, the influence from geometric tolerances on parts is not taken into consideration, i.e., the simulations are based on nominal parts. In this paper, these two aspects, both crucial for predicting the final outcome of an assembly, are combined. Monte Carlo simulation is used to generate a number of different non-nominal parts in a software for variation simulation. The translation and rotation matrices, representing the deviations from the nominal geometry due to positioning error, are exported to a software for welding simulation, where the effects from welding are applied. The final results are then analyzed with respect to both deviation and variation. The method is applied on a simple case, a T-weld joint, with available measurements of residual stresses and deformations. The effect of the different sources of deviation on the final outcome is analyzed and the difference between welding simulations applied to nominal parts and to disturbed (non-nominal) parts is investigated. The study shows that, in order to achieve realistic results, variation simulations should be combined with welding simulations. It does also show that welding simulations should be applied to a set of non-nominal parts since the difference between deviation of a nominal part and deviation of a non-nominal part due to influence of welding can be quite large.

geometrical variation



Monte Carlo simulation


tolerance analysis


Andreas Pahkamaa

Luleå tekniska universitet

Kristina Wärmefjord

Chalmers, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling, Produktutveckling

Lennart Karlsson

Luleå tekniska universitet

Rikard Söderberg

Chalmers, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling, Produktutveckling

John Goldak

Carleton University

Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering

1530-9827 (ISSN)

Vol. 12 2 021002-021007 021002


Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi

Annan maskinteknik


Hållbar utveckling





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