Characterization of the surface of Fe–19Mn–18Cr–C–N during heat treatment in a high vacuum — An XPS study
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2012

Nitrogen-containing CrMn austenitic stainless steels offer evident benefits compared to CrNi-based grades. The production of high-quality parts by means of powder metallurgy could be an appropriate alternative to the standard molding process leading to improved properties. The powder metallurgical production of CrMn austenitic steel is challenging on account of the high oxygen affinity of Mn and Cr. Oxides hinder the densification processes and may lower the performance of the sintered part if they remain in the steel after sintering. Thus, in evaluating the sinterability of the steel Fe–19Mn–18Cr–C–N, characterization of the surface is of great interest. In this study, comprehensive investigations by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were performed to characterize the surface during heat treatment in a high vacuum. The results show a shift of oxidation up to 600 °C, meaning transfer of oxygen from the iron oxide layer to Mn-based particulate oxides, followed by progressive reduction and transformation of the Mn oxides into stable Si-containing oxides at elevated temperatures. Mass loss caused by Mn evaporation was observed accompanied by Mn oxide decomposition starting at 700 °C.

Oxide characterization

Surface analysis

High CrMn austenitic steel

Powder metallurgy


Kathrin Zumsande

Energie GmbH

Ruhr-Universität Bochum

Anna Weddeling

Chalmers, Material- och tillverkningsteknik, Yt- och mikrostrukturteknik

Eduard Hryha

Chalmers, Material- och tillverkningsteknik, Yt- och mikrostrukturteknik

Stephan Huth

Ruhr-Universität Bochum

Lars Nyborg

Chalmers, Material- och tillverkningsteknik, Yt- och mikrostrukturteknik

Sebastian Weber

Energie GmbH

N. Krasokha

Ruhr-Universität Bochum

W. Theisen

Ruhr-Universität Bochum

Materials Characterization

1044-5803 (ISSN)

Vol. 71 66-76


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