Wavelength Control of VCSELs using High-Contrast Gratings
Paper i proceeding, 2017

The vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is a well-established light source for sensing and short-reach optical links. The surface emission allows wafer-scale testing enabling low-cost manufacturing, while the VCSELs’ small modal volume leads to low power consumption, high-speed modulation at small currents, and small footprint [1]. Conventional VCSELs consist of an active region sandwiched between two distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs). Replacing the top DBR with a high-contrast grating reflector offers unique possibilities to engineer and control VCSEL emission wavelength and modal properties [2,3]. A high-contrast grating (HCG) is typically formed by bars of high refractive index suspended in air. HCGs with certain grating parameters (duty cycle, period, and thickness) can function as ultra-thin reflectors with close to 100% reflectivity [4]. Besides the reflectivity, the grating parameters also influence the reflection phase. This enables fabrication of multi-wavelength VCSEL arrays by fabricating HCG-VCSELs with different grating parameters. In order to utilize the extraordinary properties of the HCG, the VCSEL mode must be sensitive to the HCG, which leads to complicated cavity configurations with coupled cavity effects and low optical confinement. This talk will summarize experimental work performed at Chalmers University of Technology in collaboration with Hewlett Packard Enterprise. The design of HCGs and HCG-VCSELs will be presented as well as experimental results from 980 nm HCG-VCSELs and demonstration of post-growth wavelength setting for wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) VCSEL arrays [5]. References [1] Larsson, “Advances in VCSELs for communication and sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 1552-1567 (2011). [2] V. Karagodsky, et al., ”Monolithically integrated multi-wavelength VCSEL arrays using high-contrast gratings”, Opt. Express 18(2), 694-699 (2010). [3] S. Inoue, et al., “Highly angular dependent high-contrast grating mirrors and its application for transverse-mode control of VCSELs”, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53, 090306 (2014). [4] C. J. Chang-Hasnain et al., “High-contrast gratings for integrated optoelectronics”, Adv. Opt. Photon. 4, 379-, (2012). [5] E. Haglund, et al., “Demonstration of post-growth wavelength-setting of VCSELs using high-contrast gratings”, Opt, Express 24(3), 1999-2005 (2016). Acknowledgement This work was been supported by Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HPE), the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) and the Swedish Research Council (VR). The epitaxial material was provided by IQE Europe.


Erik Haglund

Chalmers, Mikroteknologi och nanovetenskap (MC2), Fotonik

Johan Gustavsson

Chalmers, Mikroteknologi och nanovetenskap (MC2), Fotonik

W. V. Sorin

Jörgen Bengtsson

Chalmers, Mikroteknologi och nanovetenskap (MC2), Fotonik

David Fattal

Åsa Haglund

Chalmers, Mikroteknologi och nanovetenskap (MC2), Fotonik

Michael Tan

Anders Larsson

Chalmers, Mikroteknologi och nanovetenskap (MC2), Fotonik

VII Workshop on Physics and Technology of Semiconductor Lasers


Informations- och kommunikationsteknik

Nanovetenskap och nanoteknik