Design considerations for virtual laboratories: A comparative study of two virtual laboratories for learning about gas solubility and colour appearance
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2019

Building a virtual laboratory for teaching and learning is a highly complex process, incorporating diverse areas such as interaction design, visualisation, and pedagogy. This article focuses on the production and implementation issues that were found in the comparison of two different virtual laboratory projects, and discuss which design considerations can be drawn from these observations. Two web-based virtual laboratories - the Gas Laboratory and the Virtual Colour Laboratory - were developed independently of each other within two different content areas. The laboratories share considerable overlaps in goals and production circumstances. Through a comparison of production and outcome, similar problems related to design, development and implementation were observed. The research uses a mixed method approach combining quantitative pre- and post-tests for assessments, qualitative surveys, and qualitative, ethnographic observations and interviews. By comparing the background material, five design challenges for developing virtual laboratories are identified: 1) how to balance ambitions with available resources; 2) how to balance intended levels of user interaction with exploratory freedom; 3) how to find appropriate levels of realism depending on target group; 4) how to choose between mimicking real world appearance and enhanced features; and 5) how to find the best learning situation for the virtual laboratory. To meet these challenges, the following design considerations are proposed: Guide the design work with a clear understanding of purpose and context; select appropriate technology to ensure efficient design and media usage; select level of realism considering purpose and end users; and provide learning guides before and after the virtual lab session.

Design considerations

Interdisciplinary projects

Interactive learning environments

User evaluation

Cloned and enhanced laboratories

Virtual laboratories


Beata Stahre Wästberg

Chalmers, Data- och informationsteknik, Interaktionsdesign

Thommy Eriksson

Chalmers, Data- och informationsteknik, Interaktionsdesign

Göran Karlsson

Högskolan i Halmstad

Maria Sunnerstam

Göteborgs universitet

Michael Axelsson

Göteborgs universitet

Monica Billger

Chalmers, Arkitektur och samhällsbyggnadsteknik, Arkitekturens teori och metod

Education and Information Technologies

1360-2357 (ISSN) 15737608 (eISSN)

Vol. 24 3 2059-2080

Det Virtuella Färglaboratoriet (DVFL)

Formas, 2012-05-01 -- 2013-04-30.


Informations- och kommunikationsteknik

Building Futures (2010-2018)


Hållbar utveckling




Människa-datorinteraktion (interaktionsdesign)


Grundläggande vetenskaper

Lärande och undervisning

Pedagogiskt arbete



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