Reactive Element Effects in High-Temperature Alloys Disentangled
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2019

Reactive elements—REs—are decisive for the longevity of high-temperature alloys. This work joins several previous efforts to disentangle various RE effects in order to explain apparently contradicting experimental observations in alumina forming alloys. At 800–1000 °C, “messy” aluminum oxy-hydroxy-hydride transients initially formed due to oxidation by H2O which in turn undergo secondary oxidation by O2. The formation of the transient oxide becomes supported by dispersed RE oxide particles acting as water equivalents. At higher temperatures, electron conductivity in impurity states owing to oxygen vacancies in grain boundaries (GBs) becomes increasingly relevant. These channels are subsequently closed by REs pinning the said vacancies. The universality of the emerging understanding is supported by a comparative first-principles study by means of density functional theory addressing RE(III): Sc2O3, Y2O3, and La2O3, and RE(IV): TiO2, ZrO2, and HfO2, that upon reaction with water, co-decorate a generic GB model by hydroxide and RE ions. At 100% RE coverage, the GB model becomes relevant at both temperature regimes. Based on reaction enthalpy ΔHr considerations, “messy” aluminum oxy-hydroxy-hydride transients are accessed in both classes. Larger variations in ΔHr are found for RE(III)-decorated alumina GBs as compared to RE(IV). For RE(III), correlation with GB width is found, increasing with increased ionic radius. Similarly, upon varying RE(IV), minor changes in stability correlate with minor structural variations. GB decorations by Ce(III) and Ce(IV) further consolidate the emerging understanding. The findings are used to discuss experimental observations that include impact of co-doping by RE(III) and RE(IV).

Alumina formers

Reactive element effects

Temperature effects

Grain boundary decorations

Density functional theory

High-temperature oxidation

Författare

Vedad Babic

Chalmers, Kemi och kemiteknik, Energi och material, Oorganisk miljökemi 2

Christine Geers

Chalmers, Kemi och kemiteknik, Energi och material, Oorganisk miljökemi

Itai Panas

Chalmers, Kemi och kemiteknik, Energi och material, Oorganisk miljökemi 2

Oxidation of Metals

0030-770X (ISSN) 1573-4889 (eISSN)

Vol. In press

Ämneskategorier

Oorganisk kemi

Keramteknik

Metallurgi och metalliska material

DOI

10.1007/s11085-019-09946-6

Mer information

Senast uppdaterat

2019-12-03