Achievements, Challenges, and Prospects of Calcium Batteries
This Review flows from past attempts to develop a (rechargeable) battery technology based on Ca via crucial breakthroughs to arrive at a comprehensive discussion of the current challenges at hand. The realization of a rechargeable Ca battery technology primarily requires identification and development of suitable electrodes and electrolytes, which is why we here cover the progress starting from the fundamental electrode/electrolyte requirements, concepts, materials, and compositions employed and finally a critical analysis of the state-of-the-art, allowing us to conclude with the particular roadblocks still existing. As for crucial breakthroughs, reversible plating and stripping of calcium at the metal-anode interface was achieved only recently and for very specific electrolyte formulations. Therefore, while much of the current research aims at finding suitable cathodes to achieve proof-of-concept for a full Ca battery, the spectrum of electrolytes researched is also expanded. Compatibility of cell components is essential, and to ensure this, proper characterization is needed, which requires design of a multitude of reliable experimental setups and sometimes methodology development beyond that of other next generation battery technologies. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future strategies to make best use of the current advances in materials science combined with computational design, electrochemistry, and battery engineering, all to propel the Ca battery technology to reality and ultimately reach its full potential for energy storage.