Increasing cities' capacity to manage noise and air quality using urban morphology
Paper i proceeding, 2019
According to the World Health Organization, the top two in disease burden are air pollution and environmental noise. In cities, road traffic is the largest contributor to both noise and air pollution and the corresponding Swedish Environmental objectives are to date estimated to not be reached by 2020. Future reductions concerning both air quality and noise are considered insufficient whereby additional measures are needed.
Air quality is linked to urban form such that compact cities were shown to result in increasing concentrations of air pollution. Further, urban form influences the meteorology due to changed surface roughness on the larger scale (urban scale), and even more in a local- and microscale at ground level in street canyons. This will affect wind patterns influencing the dispersion possibility of air pollutants.
For investigating local effects of urban morphology on noise and air distribution simultaneously, the Spacematrix method has been shown to be useful, as described in Berghauser Pont and Haupt (2010). Building types can be composed of a combination of density variables enabling to quantify a type and manipulate each variable separately. The aim of this paper is to identify critical spatial parameters influencing noise and air pollution and translate them into measures of spatial form including size of the urban block, and distribution, positioning and height of the buildings within that block.