Frequency control and synthetic inertia in energy systems modelling
Preprint, 2020

This study investigates how inclusion of frequency control constraints in electricity system modelling impacts the investment and dispatch in electricity generation and storage technologies for high-VRE futures. This is done using a linear cost-minimizing investment and dispatch model using historical load, wind and solar power conditions from Spain, Ireland, Sweden and Hungary for the year 2050. With an hourly time-resolution, constraints are added to ensure that, within each hour, sufficient inertial power and reserves are available to control the frequency. Comparing the results with and without these constraints show that nearly all impact on the results is in battery investments and operation. Furthermore, it is found that reserve requirements have a higher impact on system composition and operation than inertial power requirements.

system impact

operating reserves (OR)

variable renewable energy (VRE)

synthetic inertia

energy systems modelling

fast frequency reserve (FFR)

frequency control


Jonathan Ullmark

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Energiteknik

Massimo Bongiorno

Chalmers, Elektroteknik, Elkraftteknik

Peiyuan Chen

Chalmers, Elektroteknik, Elkraftteknik

Lisa Göransson

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Energiteknik

Filip Johnsson

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Energiteknik


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