Variations among Viruses in Influent Water and Effluent Water at a Wastewater Plant over One Year as Assessed by Quantitative PCR and Metagenomics
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2020

Influent wastewater and effluent wastewater at the Rya treatment plant in Gothenburg, Sweden, were continuously monitored for enteric viruses by quantitative PCR (qPCR) during 1 year. Viruses in effluent wastewater were also identified by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in samples collected during spring, early summer, and winter. Samples of incoming wastewater were collected every second week. Seasonal variations in viral concentrations in incoming wastewater were found for noroviruses GII, sapovirus, rotavirus, parechovirus, and astrovirus. Norovirus GI and GIV and Aichi virus were present in various amounts during most weeks throughout the year, while hepatitis A virus, enterovirus, and adenovirus were identified less frequently. Fluctuations in viral concentrations in incoming wastewater were related to the number of diagnosed patients. The viruses were also detected in treated wastewater, however, with a 3- to 6-log10 reduction in concentration. Seven different hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains were identified in the effluents. Five of these strains belonged to genotype 3 and have been isolated in Sweden from swine, wild boars, and humans and in drinking water. The other two strains were divergent and had not been identified previously. They were similar to strains infecting rats and humans. Surveillance of enteric viruses in wastewater is a tool for early detection and follow-up of gastroenteritis outbreaks in society and for the identification of new viruses that can cause infection in humans.




Aichi virus

human parechovirus



Hao Wang

Göteborgs universitet

Julianna Neyvaldt

bioMerieux Sweden AB

Lucica Enache


Per Sikora

SciLife Labs

Göteborgs universitet

Ann Mattsson


Anette Johansson


Magnus Lindh

Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset

Göteborgs universitet

Olof Bergstedt

Chalmers, Arkitektur och samhällsbyggnadsteknik, Vatten Miljö Teknik

Göteborgs Stad

Helene Norder

Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset

Göteborgs universitet

Applied and Environmental Microbiology

0099-2240 (ISSN) 1098-5336 (eISSN)

Vol. 86 24 1-14




Mikrobiologi inom det medicinska området





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