Lipid oxidation and antioxidant delivery systems in muscle food
Lipid oxidation accelerates quality deterioration in muscle-based foods (fish, red meat, and poultry), resulting in off-odors/flavors, color problems, texture defects, and safety concerns. Adding antioxidants is one approach to control lipid oxidation, and several delivery strategies have been applied, such as supplementing antioxidants to the feed, direct mixing into minces, or, for whole muscle pieces; spraying, glazing, and injection. However, some issues linked to these technologies hinder their wide utilization, such as low effectiveness, noncompatibility with clean label, and off-flavor. These shortcomings have promoted the development of new antioxidant delivery technologies. In this review, the main focus is on the principles, characteristics, and implementation of five novel antioxidant delivery methods in different types of muscle food products. Their advantages and drawbacks are also summarized, plus comments about future trends in this area. Among novel routes to deliver antioxidants to muscle foods are, for whole tissues, recyclable dipping solutions; for minces, encapsulation; and, for both minces and whole tissues, cross-processing with nonmuscle antioxidant-containing raw materials as well as applications of edible films/coatings and active packaging. Advantages of these technologies comprise, for example, low price, the possibility to control the antioxidant release rate, overcoming strong aromas from natural antioxidants, and allowing antioxidant-containing raw materials from the food industry to be valorized, providing an opportunity for more circular food production.
edible films and coatings