A data-driven framework for the safe integration of micro-mobility into the transport system: Comparing bicycles and e-scooters in field trials
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2022

Introduction: Recent advances in technology create new opportunities for micro-mobility solutions even as they pose new challenges to transport safety. For instance, in the last few years, e-scooters have become increasingly popular in several cities worldwide; however, in many cases, the municipalities were simply unprepared for the new competition for urban space between traditional road users and e-scooters, so that bans became a necessary, albeit drastic, solution. In many countries, traditional vehicles (such as bicycles) may not be intrinsically safer than e-scooters but are considered less of a safety threat, possibly because—for cyclists—social norms, traffic regulations, and access to infrastructure are established, reducing the number of negative stakeholders. Understanding e-scooter kinematics and e-scooterist behavior may help resolve conflicts among road users, by favoring a data-driven integration of these new e-vehicles into the transport system. In fact, regulations and solutions supported by data are more likely to be acceptable and effective for all stakeholders. As new personal-mobility solutions enter the market, e-scooters may just be the beginning of a micro-mobility revolution. Method: This paper introduces a framework (including planning, execution, analysis, and modeling) for a data-driven evaluation of micro-mobility vehicles. The framework leverages our experience assessing bicycle dynamics in real traffic to make objective and subjective comparisons across different micro-mobility solutions. In this paper, we use the framework to compare bicycles and e-scooters in field tests. Results: The preliminary results show that e-scooters may be more maneuverable and comfortable than bicycles, although the former require longer braking distances. Practical Applications: Data collected from e-scooters may, in the short term, facilitate policy making, geo-fencing solutions, and education; in the long run, the same data will promote the integration of e-scooters into a cooperative transport system in which connected automated vehicles share the urban space with micro-mobility vehicles. Finally, the framework and the models presented in this paper may serve as a reference for the future assessment of new micro-mobility vehicles and their users’ behavior (although advances in technology and novel micro-mobility solutions will inevitably require some adjustments).

Traffic safety

Automated connected vehicles

Electric vehicles

Intelligent transport system


Vehicle classification


Marco Dozza

Chalmers, Mekanik och maritima vetenskaper, Fordonssäkerhet

Alessio Violin

Chalmers, Mekanik och maritima vetenskaper, Fordonssäkerhet

Alexander Rasch

Chalmers, Mekanik och maritima vetenskaper, Fordonssäkerhet

Journal of Safety Research

0022-4375 (ISSN)

Vol. In press

Definiera och klassificera nya elektrifierade fordon för personmobilitet

Trafikverket (2019/21327), 2019-08-01 -- 2020-09-01.


Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi

Transportteknik och logistik



Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi





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