Rear-End Impact Assessment expanded with Pre-Impact Posture Variations
Paper i proceeding, 2022

Present whiplash injury assessment tests, reflecting the seat performance only, provide limited insights into real-world whiplash injury protection needs. Virtual testing of braking followed by a rear-end impact, in addition to alternative initial sitting postures, were conducted to investigate if the current anthropomorphic test device can be used to cover a larger scope of the real-world context. Reconstruction of published 1.1 g braking volunteer tests showed that a BioRID FE model was capable of recreating human-like kinematics; with head and T1 kinematics just within a 1 SD corridor on the low side of the volunteer response, while vertical displacements and lap-belt forces were underpredicted. A simulation series including pre-impact braking prior to rear-end impact investigated two strategies to vary the backset, as well as pre-impact means of intervention, exemplified by pre-impact seatbelt pretensioning. Using virtual testing, the study demonstrates examples of expanding the whiplash assessment test setup, enabling inclusion of a variety of occupant sitting postures and a braking event preceding the rear-end impact, while still being feasible to execute. As a next step, a human body model capable of seamless pre-crash and crash prediction could even allow for more in-depth investigations, as well as inclusion of ranges of occupant sizes and posture setting possibilities.

rear-end impacts

occupant posture

whiplash injuries

virtual testing

Keywords BioRID FE model


Lotta Jakobsson

Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre at Chalmers

Chalmers, Mekanik och maritima vetenskaper, Fordonssäkerhet


Jan Östh

Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre at Chalmers

Chalmers, Mekanik och maritima vetenskaper, Strömningslära


Katarina Bohman

Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre at Chalmers


Conference proceedings International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, IRCOBI

22353151 (ISSN)

online, ,


Rymd- och flygteknik

Annan medicinteknik


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