The Effects of Natural Sounds and Proxemic Distances on the Perception of a Noisy Domestic Flying Robot
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2023

When flying robots are used in close-range interaction with humans, the noise they generate, also called consequential sound, is a critical parameter for user acceptance. We conjecture that there is a benefit in adding natural sounds to noisy domestic drones. To test our hypothesis experimentally, we carried out a mixed-methods research study (N=56) on reported user perception of a sonified domestic flying robot with three sound conditions at three distances. The natural sounds studied were respectively added to the robot’s inherent noises during flying; namely a birdsong and a rain sound, plus a control condition of no added sound. The distances studied were set according to proxemics; namely near, middle, and far. Our results show that adding birdsong or rain sound affects the participants’ perceptions, and the proxemic distances play a nonnegligible role. For instance, we found that participants liked the bird condition the most when the drone was at far, while they disliked the same sound the most when at near. We also found that participants’ perceptions strongly depended on their associations and interpretations deriving from previous experience. We derived six concrete design recommendations.

consequential sound

close-range human-drone interaction

domestic flying robots

natural sounds


Ziming Wang

Chalmers, Data- och informationsteknik, Interaktionsdesign och Software Engineering

Université du Luxembourg

Ziyi Hu

Student vid Chalmers

Björn Rohles

Université du Luxembourg

Sara Ljungblad

Göteborgs universitet

Vincent Koenig

Université du Luxembourg

Morten Fjeld

Universitetet i Bergen

Chalmers, Data- och informationsteknik, Interaktionsdesign och Software Engineering

ACM Transactions on Human-Robot Interaction

25739522 (ISSN)

Vol. JA 1-32

The Rise of Social Drones: A Constructive Research Agenda

Marianne och Marcus Wallenberg Stiftelse (M&MWallenbergsStiftelse), 2020-01-01 -- 2023-12-31.


Informations- och kommunikationsteknik


Hållbar utveckling


Psykologi (exklusive tillämpad psykologi)


Människa-datorinteraktion (interaktionsdesign)

Robotteknik och automation

Strömningsmekanik och akustik



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