Assessment of experimental methods for measurements of the horizontal flow of fluidized solids under bubbling conditions
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2023
Dual fluidized bed systems are indispensable for future energy systems that require solids cycling between different atmospheres. However, controlling the residence time of solids in the reactor, which is crucial for controlling the heat and mass transfer of the fuel, is a significant challenge. This study investigates four experimental techniques to quantify the horizontal flow of solids fluidized under bubbling conditions: integral mass accumulation; differential mass accumulation; thermal tracing; and magnetic solids tracing. Integral mass accumulation entails collecting bed material using a defluidized box within a given time period. Differential mass accumulation measures the material accumulation rate in a section of the bed that is monitored using pressure measurements. Thermal tracing calculates the solids flow rate by solving the heat balance to match the temperature field captured by a thermographic camera. Magnetic solids tracing involves injecting a batch of magnetic tracer solids into the reactor and then measuring the residence time distribution using impedance coils. The experiments were conducted under down-scaled conditions that resemble large-scale operations with a length scaling factor of 0.12. For this study, three operational parameters were varied: the fixed bed height; the volumetric flow rate of the conveying air; and the fluidization velocity in the bed. The horizontal solids circulation rates achieved ranged from 1.7×10−4 to 10 kg/m·s, corresponding to 1.2×10−3 to 70 kg/m·s on a hot up-scaled basis, which is a relevant range to indirect biomass gasification in an industrial setting. The three selected operational parameters led to increases in the horizontal solids flow. While all four methods replicated the trends, quantitative variations in the measured circulation rates occurred due to the inherent characteristics of the methods. High circulation rates resulted in a continuous decrease in the solids inventory, leading to an underestimation of the circulation rate when using the integral mass accumulation method. The accuracy of the differential mass accumulation method relied on transient pressure measurements, which were less-effective at low solids flow rates. Conversely, the accumulation time required for pressure measurements was reduced at high circulation rates, resulting in uncertainties in the analysis. The accuracy of the thermal tracing method decreased drastically with higher solids circulation, resulting in an overestimation of the circulation rate. Moreover, low circulation rates adversely affected the accuracy of the magnetic solids tracing by producing barely discernible tracer concentration gradients.
Solids flow rate
Bubbling fluidized bed