The role of biofuels for transportation in CO2 emission reduction scenarios with global versus regional carbon caps
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2009
This study analyzes how international climate regimes affect cost-efficiency of fuel choices in the transportation sector. The analysis is carried out with a regionalized version of the Global Energy Transition model, GET-R 6.0. Two different carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction scenarios are applied, both meeting an atmospheric CO2 concentration target of 450 ppm by the year 2100. The first scenario, ‘‘global cap’’ (GC), uses a global cap on CO2 emissions, and global emissions trading is allowed. In the second scenario, ‘‘regional caps’’ (RC), industrialized regions start to reduce their CO2 emissions by 2010 while developing regions may wait several decades and emission reductions are not tradable across regions. In this second scenario, CO2 emissions are assumed to meet an equal per capita distribution of 1.0 tC/ capita, in all six regions, by 2040; emissions then follow a common reduction path, toward approximately 0.2 tC/capita by 2100. Three main results emerge from our analysis: (i) the use of biofuels in the industrialized regions is significantly higher in RC than in GC; (ii) the use of biofuels in RC actually increases the weaker (i.e., higher) the CO2 concentration target (up to 550 ppm); and (iii) biofuels never play a dominant role in the transportation sector. We find that biofuels may play a more important role in industrialized countries if these take on their responsibilities and reduce their emissions before developing countries start reducing their emissions, compared to the case in which all countries take action under a global cap and trade emission reduction regime.
CO2 reduction scenarios
Global climate policies
Equal per capita emissions
Energy systems modeling