An analysis of hydronic heating pavement to optimize the required energy for anti-icing
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2018

The aim of this study is to determine the optimal required energy for anti-icing the road surface using a Hydronic Heating Pavement (HHP). A hybrid 3D numerical model is used to simulate the transient anti-icing operation of the HHP system. Moreover, a superposition principle is used to separate the numerical simulation model into two fundamental sub-models: (i) a model with supplying heat to the HHP system and (ii) a model without any heat supply. The criteria for determining the optimal required energy is to increase the temperature at the road surface to provide an ice-free road. To ensure the anti-icing, the temperature threshold of +0.49 °C is added to the required temperature increase at the road surface. The optimal required energy is calculated using a linear programming optimization method. The climate data are obtained from Östersund, a city in the middle of Sweden with long and cold winters. Furthermore, the maximum heat flux supplied to the HHP system is constrained to be 200 W/m2. The results of optimization reveal that the optimal required energy is 106.6 kWh/(m2year). Supplying this amount of energy to the HHP system leads to remain only three hours of the slippery conditions at the road surface.

Superposition principle


Ice free road

Equivalent temperature

Required energy


Raheb Mirzanamadi

Chalmers, Arkitektur och samhällsbyggnadsteknik, Byggnadsteknologi

Carl-Eric Hagentoft

Chalmers, Arkitektur och samhällsbyggnadsteknik, Byggnadsteknologi

Pär Johansson

Chalmers, Arkitektur och samhällsbyggnadsteknik, Byggnadsteknologi

Applied Thermal Engineering

1359-4311 (ISSN)

Vol. 144 278-290







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