Investigation of Noise Properties in the InP HEMT for LNAs in Qubit Amplification: Effects From Channel Indium Content
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2024

The InP high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) is employed in cryogenic low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) for the readout of faint microwave signals in quantum computing. The performance of such LNAs is ultimately limited by the properties of the active InxGa1-xAs channel in the InP HEMT. In this study, we have investigated the noise performance of 100-nm gate-length InP HEMTs used in cryogenic LNAs for amplification of qubits. The channel indium content in the InP HEMTs was 53, 60 and 70%. Hall measurements of the epitaxial materials and dc characterization of the InP HEMTs confirmed the superior transport properties of the channel structures. An indirect method involving an LNA and small-signal noise modeling was used for extracting the channel noise with high accuracy. Under noise-optimized bias, we observed that the 60% indium channel InP HEMT exhibited the lowest drain noise temperature. The difference in LNA noise temperature among InP HEMTs became more pronounced with decreasing drain voltage and current. An average noise temperature and average gain of 3.3 K and 21 dB, respectively, for a 4-8 GHz three-stage hybrid cryogenic LNA using 60% indium channel InP HEMTs was measured at a dc power consumption of 108 μW. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is a new state-of-the-art for a C-band LNA operating below 1 mW. The higher drain noise temperature observed for 53 and 70% indium channels InP HEMTs can be attributed to a combination of thermal noise in the channel and real-space transfer of electrons from the channel to the barrier. This report gives experimental evidence of an optimum channel indium content in the InP HEMT used in LNAs for qubit amplification.

low-noise amplifier (LNA)


Noise measurement

InP high-electronmobility transistor (HEMT)

indium channel


Drain noise temperature

Indium phosphide

Logic gates

III-V semiconductor materials


qubit amplification


Junjie Li

Chalmers, Mikroteknologi och nanovetenskap, Terahertz- och millimetervågsteknik

Johan Bergsten

Low Noise Factory AB

Arsalan Pourkabirian

Low Noise Factory AB

Jan Grahn

Chalmers, Mikroteknologi och nanovetenskap, Terahertz- och millimetervågsteknik

IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society

21686734 (eISSN)

Vol. 12 243-248


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