Nucleation-limited fullerene crystallisation in a polymer–fullerene bulk-heterojunction blend
Journal article, 2013

The nucleation and growth kinetics of fullerene crystals in thin films of a polymer:fullerene bulk-heterojunction blend are investigated. We find that both processes are strongly diffusion-limited at 100–110 °C due to the proximity to the glass transition temperatures of the blend components. Whereas the growth rate exponentially increases with temperature up to 230 °C, the nucleation rate displays a broad maximum around 150–170 °C, which coincides with the highest rate of fullerene crystallisation. A time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram reveals that across the investigated range of temperatures the low rate of nucleation is responsible for the formation of micrometre-sized crystals, which can be detrimental for polymer solar cells. Thus, we identify the lack of sufficient nucleation, which predominantly occurs on the substrate interface, as the origin of this important degradation mechanism.

Author

Camilla Lindqvist

Chalmers, Chemical and Biological Engineering, Polymer Technology

Anke Sanz-Velasco

Chalmers, Applied Physics, Electronics Material and Systems Laboratory

Ergang Wang

Chalmers, Chemical and Biological Engineering, Polymer Technology

Olof Bäcke

Chalmers, Applied Physics, Eva Olsson Group

Stefan Gustafsson

Chalmers, Applied Physics, Eva Olsson Group

SuMo Biomaterials

Eva Olsson

Chalmers, Applied Physics, Eva Olsson Group

Mats Andersson

Chalmers, Chemical and Biological Engineering, Polymer Technology

Christian Müller

Chalmers, Chemical and Biological Engineering, Polymer Technology

Journal of Materials Chemistry A

20507488 (ISSN) 20507496 (eISSN)

Vol. 1 24 7174-7180

Areas of Advance

Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (2010-2017)

Energy

Materials Science

Subject Categories

Chemical Engineering

DOI

10.1039/C3TA11018D

More information

Created

10/8/2017