Nucleation-limited fullerene crystallisation in a polymer–fullerene bulk-heterojunction blend
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2013

The nucleation and growth kinetics of fullerene crystals in thin films of a polymer:fullerene bulk-heterojunction blend are investigated. We find that both processes are strongly diffusion-limited at 100–110 °C due to the proximity to the glass transition temperatures of the blend components. Whereas the growth rate exponentially increases with temperature up to 230 °C, the nucleation rate displays a broad maximum around 150–170 °C, which coincides with the highest rate of fullerene crystallisation. A time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram reveals that across the investigated range of temperatures the low rate of nucleation is responsible for the formation of micrometre-sized crystals, which can be detrimental for polymer solar cells. Thus, we identify the lack of sufficient nucleation, which predominantly occurs on the substrate interface, as the origin of this important degradation mechanism.

Författare

Camilla Lindqvist

Chalmers, Kemi- och bioteknik, Polymerteknologi

Anke Sanz-Velasco

Chalmers, Mikroteknologi och nanovetenskap (MC2), Elektronikmaterial och system

Ergang Wang

Chalmers, Kemi- och bioteknik, Polymerteknologi

Olof Bäcke

Chalmers, Teknisk fysik, Eva Olsson Group

Stefan Gustafsson

Chalmers, Teknisk fysik, Eva Olsson Group

SuMo Biomaterials

Eva Olsson

Chalmers, Teknisk fysik, Eva Olsson Group

Mats Andersson

Chalmers, Kemi- och bioteknik, Polymerteknologi

Christian Müller

Chalmers, Kemi- och bioteknik, Polymerteknologi

Journal of Materials Chemistry A

2050-7488 (ISSN)

Vol. 1 24 7174-7180

Styrkeområden

Nanovetenskap och nanoteknik

Energi

Materialvetenskap

Ämneskategorier

Kemiteknik

DOI

10.1039/C3TA11018D