Tailoring bilberry powder functionality through processing: Effects of drying and fractionation on the stability of total polyphenols and anthocyanins
Journal article, 2019
Bilberries are a rich natural source of phenolic compounds, especially anthocyanins. The press cake obtained during the processing of bilberry juice is a potential source of phytochemicals. The objective of this study was to evaluate different drying techniques and the fractionation of bilberry press cake powder toward obtaining phenolic-rich ingredients for incorporation into value-added food products. The derived powders were dispersed in water and dairy cream, to investigate the effects of drying and fractionation on the dispersibility and solubility of phenolic compounds. The drying techniques, hot air drying and microwave drying, applied on bilberry press cake reduced the content of total phenolics and anthocyanins. The degradation was, however, consistently small and similar for both techniques. The major anthocyanins detected in the samples were stable during drying and fractionation treatments. Fractionation of the press cake powder affected the total apparent phenolic content and composition of the different fractions. The highest phenolic content (55.33 +/- 0.06 mg g(-1) DW) and highest anthocyanin content (28.15 +/- 0.47 mg g(-1) DW) were found in the fractions with the smallest particle size (<500 mu m), with delphinidin-3-O-galactoside being the most abundant anthocyanin. Dispersibility of all dried powder samples was higher in dairy cream than water, and the highest level of anthocyanins was measured in samples from the powder with the smallest particle size (<500 mu m), dispersed in cream. The application of drying, milling and fractionation was found to be a promising approach to transform bilberry press cake into stable and deliverable ingredients that can be used for fortification of food products with high levels of phenolic compounds.