Describing broadband terahertz response of graphene FET detectors by a classical model
Journal article, 2020

Direct power detectors based on field-effect transistors are becoming widely used for terahertz applications. However, accurate characterization at terahertz frequencies of such detectors is a challenging task. The high-frequency response is dominated by parasitic coupling and loss associated with contacts and overall layout of the component. Moreover, the performance of such detectors is complicated to predict since many different physical models are used to explain the high sensitivity at terahertz frequencies. This makes it hard to draw important conclusions about the underlying device physics for these detectors. For the first time, we demonstrate accurate and comprehensive characterization of graphene field-effect transistors from 1 GHz to 1.1 THz, simultaneously accessing the bias dependence, the scattering parameters, and the detector voltage responsivity. Within a frequency range of more than 1 THz, and over a wide bias range, we have shown that the voltage responsivity can be accurately described using a combination of a small-signal equivalent circuit model, and the second-order series expansion terms of the nonlinear dc $I-V$ characteristic. Without bias, the measured low-frequency responsivity was 0.3 kV/W with the input signal applied to the gate, and 2 kV/W with the input signal applied to the drain. The corresponding cut-off frequencies for the two cases were 140 GHz and 50 GHz, respectively. With a 300-GHz signal applied to the gate, a voltage responsivity of 1.8 kV/W was achieved at a drain-source current of 0.2 mA. The minimum noise equivalent power was below 30 pW/$\sqrt\mathrm{Hz}$ in cold mode. Our results show that detection of terahertz signals in graphene field-effect transistors can be described over a wide frequency range by the nonlinear carrier transport characteristic obtained at static electrical fields. This finding is important for explaining the mechanism of detection and for further development of terahertz detectors.

scattering parameters.

classical model

graphene

broadband characterization

terahertz detectors

field-effect transistors

Author

Xinxin Yang

Chalmers, Microtechnology and Nanoscience (MC2), Terahertz and Millimetre Wave Laboratory

Andrei Vorobiev

Chalmers, Microtechnology and Nanoscience (MC2), Terahertz and Millimetre Wave Laboratory

Kjell Jeppson

Chalmers, Microtechnology and Nanoscience (MC2), Terahertz and Millimetre Wave Laboratory

Jan Stake

Chalmers, Microtechnology and Nanoscience (MC2), Terahertz and Millimetre Wave Laboratory

IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology

2156-342X (ISSN)

Vol. 10 2 158-166

Areas of Advance

Information and Communication Technology

Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (SO 2010-2017, EI 2018-)

Infrastructure

Kollberg Laboratory

Nanofabrication Laboratory

Subject Categories

Nano Technology

Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering

DOI

10.1109/TTHZ.2019.2960678

More information

Latest update

7/10/2020