Describing broadband terahertz response of graphene FET detectors by a classical model
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2019

Direct power detectors based on field-effect transistors are becoming widely used for terahertz applications. However, accurate characterization at terahertz frequencies of such detectors is a challenging task. The high-frequency response is dominated by parasitic coupling and loss associated with contacts and overall layout of the component. Moreover, the performance of such detectors is complicated to predict since many different physical models are used to explain the high sensitivity at terahertz frequencies. This makes it hard to draw important conclusions about the underlying device physics for these detectors. For the first time, we demonstrate accurate and comprehensive characterization of graphene field-effect transistors from 1 GHz to 1.1 THz, simultaneously accessing the bias dependence, the scattering parameters, and the detector voltage responsivity. Within a frequency range of more than 1 THz, and over a wide bias range, we have shown that the voltage responsivity can be accurately described using a combination of a small-signal equivalent circuit model, and the second-order series expansion terms of the nonlinear dc $I-V$ characteristic. Without bias, the measured low-frequency responsivity was 0.3 kV/W with the input signal applied to the gate, and 2 kV/W with the input signal applied to the drain. The corresponding cut-off frequencies for the two cases were 140 GHz and 50 GHz, respectively. With a 300-GHz signal applied to the gate, a voltage responsivity of 1.8 kV/W was achieved at a drain-source current of 0.2 mA. The minimum noise equivalent power was below 30 pW/$\sqrt\mathrm{Hz}$ in cold mode. Our results show that detection of terahertz signals in graphene field-effect transistors can be described over a wide frequency range by the nonlinear carrier transport characteristic obtained at static electrical fields. This finding is important for explaining the mechanism of detection and for further development of terahertz detectors.

broadband characterization

field-effect transistors

terahertz detectors

classical model

scattering parameters.



Xinxin Yang

Chalmers, Mikroteknologi och nanovetenskap (MC2), Terahertz- och millimetervågsteknik

Andrei Vorobiev

Chalmers, Mikroteknologi och nanovetenskap (MC2), Terahertz- och millimetervågsteknik

Kjell Jeppson

Chalmers, Data- och informationsteknik, Datorteknik, Electronics Systems

Jan Stake

Chalmers, Mikroteknologi och nanovetenskap (MC2), Terahertz- och millimetervågsteknik

IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology

2156-342X (ISSN)

Vol. 10 2


Informations- och kommunikationsteknik

Nanovetenskap och nanoteknik (2010-2017)





Grundläggande vetenskaper



Elektroteknik och elektronik



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