Influence of batch-to-batch material variations on grindability of a medium‑carbon steel
Journal article, 2022

This study addresses the influence of material variations on the grindability of crankshaft steel. Most previous studies on the effect of material microstructure on grindability involve comparisons of significantly different steel grades. This study, in contrast, is focused on batch-to-batch grindability variations for one steel grade, a scenario frequently occurring in industry where batches from different steel makers are fed into a production line. For this purpose, a batch made of recycled steel and a batch made of ore-based steel were compared with regards to microstructure and grindability under identical grinding and dressing conditions. Although both batches met the same material specifications, microstructural variations were identified in terms of grain size and micro-constituents (inclusions, carbonitrides). While specific grinding energy, residual stress and full-width at half-maximum profiles of ground surfaces were the same for both batches, the recycled batch showed different and unfavorable variation in wheel wear and Barkhausen noise (BN) response. Larger fractions of oxide inclusions and larger grain sizes (affected by carbonitrides) were present in the recycled batch, which were the likely reasons for the differences in wheel wear and BN response, respectively. These findings may aid grindability improvement by steel-grade adjustments, e.g. modification of the distribution and type of inclusions and/or amount of elements forming carbonitrides. Furthermore, the results highlight the importance of understanding and controlling material microstructure, as existing in-line quality by BN control may not always be able to correctly indicate surface integrity, which could lead to misinterpretations (e.g. false part-rejection on the assumption of grinding burn).

Surface Integrity

Grindability

Grinding

Author

Philipp Hoier

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Materials and manufacture

Bahman Azarhoushang

Furtwangen University (HFU)

Per Lundin

Schlumpf Scandinavia AB

Amir Malakizadi

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Materials and manufacture

Jeffrey Badger

The Grinding Doc Consulting

Albin Stormvinter

RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

Thomas Björk

Ovako Sweden AB

Uta Klement

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Materials and manufacture

Fukuo Hashimoto

Advanced Finishing Technology Ltd.

Peter Krajnik

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Materials and manufacture

Journal of Manufacturing Processes

1526-6125 (ISSN)

Vol. 73 463-470

Grindability of recycled steel: automotive crankshafts

VINNOVA (2017-02908), 2017-10-01 -- 2020-09-30.

Areas of Advance

Production

Subject Categories

Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology

Metallurgy and Metallic Materials

DOI

10.1016/j.jmapro.2021.11.012

More information

Latest update

11/29/2021