Double doping of conjugated polymers with monomer molecular dopants
Journal article, 2019

Molecular doping is a crucial tool for controlling the charge-carrier concentration in organic semiconductors. Each dopant molecule is commonly thought to give rise to only one polaron, leading to a maximum of one donor:acceptor charge-transfer complex and hence an ionization efficiency of 100%. However, this theoretical limit is rarely achieved because of incomplete charge transfer and the presence of unreacted dopant. Here, we establish that common p-dopants can in fact accept two electrons per molecule from conjugated polymers with a low ionization energy. Each dopant molecule participates in two charge-transfer events, leading to the formation of dopant dianions and an ionization efficiency of up to 200%. Furthermore, we show that the resulting integer charge-transfer complex can dissociate with an efficiency of up to 170%. The concept of double doping introduced here may allow the dopant fraction required to optimize charge conduction to be halved.

organic electronics

molecular doping

doping efficiency

double doping

organic semiconductor

Author

David Kiefer

Chalmers, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Applied Chemistry, Christian Müller Group

Renee Kroon

Chalmers, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Applied Chemistry, Christian Müller Group

Anna Hofmann

Chalmers, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Applied Chemistry, Christian Müller Group

Hengda Sun

Linköping University, Campus Norrköping

Xianjie Liu

Linköping University

Alexander Giovannitti

Imperial College London

Dominik Stegerer

Chalmers, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Applied Chemistry, Christian Müller Group

Technische Universität Chemnitz

Alexander Cano

Chalmers, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Applied Chemistry, Christian Müller Group

Jonna Hynynen

Chalmers, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Applied Chemistry, Christian Müller Group

Liyang Yu

Chalmers, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Applied Chemistry, Christian Müller Group

Yadong Zhang

Georgia Institute of Technology

Dingqi Nai

University of California at Davis

Thomas F. Harrelson

University of California at Davis

Michael Sommer

Technische Universität Chemnitz

Adam J. Moulé

University of California at Davis

Martijn Kemerink

Linköping University

Seth Marder

Georgia Institute of Technology

Iain McCulloch

King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)

Imperial College London

Mats Fahlman

Linköping University

Simone Fabiano

Linköping University, Campus Norrköping

Christian Müller

Chalmers, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Applied Chemistry, Christian Müller Group

Nature Materials

1476-1122 (ISSN) 1476-4660 (eISSN)

Vol. 18 2 149-155

Areas of Advance

Energy

Materials Science

Subject Categories

Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials

Materials Chemistry

Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering

Condensed Matter Physics

DOI

10.1038/s41563-018-0263-6

PubMed

30643236

More information

Latest update

7/19/2019