Evaluation of Subjective Appetite Assessment under Free-Living vs. Controlled Conditions: A Randomized Crossover Trial Comparing Whole-Grain Rye and Refined Wheat Diets (VASA-Home)
Journal article, 2023

Background: Accurate assessment of self-reported appetite under free-living conditions is warranted to conduct large-scale intervention studies measuring appetite at a feasible cost. However, the performance of visual analogue scales (VASs) for this purpose has not been widely examined. Method: This randomized crossover trial was conducted to evaluate VASs in free-living vs. clinic-based settings and to assess appetite response following hypocaloric whole-grain rye and refined wheat diets. Twenty-nine healthy adults with overweight or obesity continuously answered VAS questions about their perceived appetite from morning to evening. Results: No differences in whole-day VAS scores (primary outcome) between clinic-based and free-living settings were observed, whereas measures of total area under the curve (tAUC) showed increased fullness in clinic-based interventions of 7% (p < 0.008) for whole-day responses and 13% (p < 0.03) following a snack. Appetite responses for a whole day did not differ between diets whereas rye-based dinners induced 12% (p < 0.016) higher fullness and reduced hunger by 17% (p < 0.02) irrespective of setting. A reduction in hunger of 15% (p < 0.05) was also observed following rye-based vs. wheat-based lunches. Conclusion: The results suggest that the VAS is valid for evaluation of appetite responses between diets under free-living conditions. No difference in self-reported appetite over the whole day was found after whole-grain rye vs. refined wheat-based diets, but there were some suggested differences at certain postprandial periods, in individuals with overweight or obesity.

visual analogue scales (VASs)

postprandial satiety

appetite response


whole-grain rye

refined wheat

free-living setting


Sebastian Åberg

Chalmers, Life Sciences, Food and Nutrition Science

Marie Palmnäs

Chalmers, Life Sciences, Food and Nutrition Science

Therese Karlsson

Chalmers, Life Sciences, Food and Nutrition Science

University of Gothenburg

Thérése Hjorth

Chalmers, Life Sciences, Food and Nutrition Science

Kia Noehr Iversen

Chalmers, Life Sciences, Food and Nutrition Science

Rikard Landberg

Chalmers, Life Sciences, Food and Nutrition Science


2072-6643 (ISSN) 20726643 (eISSN)

Vol. 15 11 2456

Nya strategier för prevention av livsstilsrelaterade sjukdomar genom påverkan av kost och mikrobiota

Swedish Research Council (VR) (2017-05840), 2018-01-01 -- 2021-12-31.

Subject Categories

Nutrition and Dietetics





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