Phytate, zinc, iron and calcium content of common Bolivian food, and implications for mineral bioavailability
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2015
The content of zinc, iron, calcium and phytate in the 16 most consumed foods from 5 villages in a tropical rural area of Bolivia was analyzed. The fooditems were selected according to a completed food frequency questionnaire. Minerals were analyzed by atomic absorption and phytates by HPIC chromatography. The molar ratios of phytate:mineral are presented as indication of the mineral bioavailability. Within the analyzed food, quinoa is a potential source of minerals: zinc 3.65, iron 5.40 and calcium 176 mg/100 g; however, it also has the highest content of phytate 2060 mg/100 g. Cereals and legumes showed high concentration of phytates (from 142 to 2070 mg/100 g), roots and tubers have lower concentrations (from 77 to 427 mg/100 g). In general, both phytate contents and molar ratios Phy:Zn (phytate:zinc), Phy:Fe (phytate:iron) and Phy:Ca (phytate:calcium) in most of the analyzed foods were at levels likely to inhibit the absorption of these minerals. Significant positive associations (p < 0.01) were found between the level of phytate and minerals in food, for zinc (r = 0.714), iron (r = 0.650) and calcium (r = 0.415). The results compared to data from USA or from Bolivia showed some discrepancies, confirming the need for more reliable data for dietary evaluations and interventions.