Correlation between Cellular Uptake and Cytotoxicity of Fragmented α-Synuclein Amyloid Fibrils Suggests Intracellular Basis for Toxicity
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2020
Aggregation and intracellular deposition of the protein α-synuclein is an underlying characteristic of Parkinson's disease. α-Synuclein assemblies also undergo cell-cell spreading, facilitating propagation of their cellular pathology. Understanding how cellular interactions and uptake of extracellular α-synuclein assemblies depend on their physical attributes is therefore important. We prepared fragmented fluorescently labeled α-synuclein amyloid fibrils of different average lengths (∼80 nm to >1 μm) and compared their interactions with SH-SY5Y cells. We report that fibrils of all lengths, but not monomers, bind avidly to the cell surface. Their uptake is inversely dependent on their average size, occurs via a heparan sulfate dependent endocytic route, and appears to have a size cutoff of ∼400 nm. The uptake of α-synuclein fibrils, but not monomers, correlates with their cytotoxicity as measured by reduction in metabolic activity, strongly suggesting an intracellular basis for α-synuclein fibril toxicity, likely involving endolysosomes.