The role of microstructural characteristics of additively manufactured Alloy 718 on tool wear in machining
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2021
This study aims to provide a fundamental understanding of the role of microstructural characteristics influencing tool wear when machining Alloy 718 fabricated using Powder Bed Fusion (PBF). The effects of preferred crystallographic orientation (texture), shape and distribution of grains, local misorientation, type and amount of precipitates as well as the type, size and amount of abrasive carbides, nitrides and oxides on tool wear are investigated in as-built condition and after the standard solutionising and double-aging treatment. The microstructures of workpiece materials and the surfaces of worn tools were examined using different material characterisation techniques, including Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). A dislocation-based approach was used to reveal the cumulative effects of the microstructural characteristics on deformation behaviour and the thermo-mechanical loads on the tools during cutting. The analyses suggest that texture and the extent of material work-hardening prior to the onset of crack formation markedly influence the amount of plastic work and thus heat generation when machining Electron Beam Powder Bed Fusion (EB-PBF) material. The higher heat generation in the cutting zones provokes thermally-induced wear mechanisms like diffusion-dissolution and oxidation. In addition, the larger amount of hard oxide inclusions present in EB-PBF material leads to higher wear by abrasion. In contrast to the prevailing experimental approaches in this field, the present investigation is built on a physics-based framework to understand the fundamental aspects that govern material deformation and heat generation in cutting and, consequently, tool wear mechanisms. This framework can be used for machinability assessment of any alloy manufactured by different additive manufacturing (AM) technologies and for optimising the process-chain, including printing strategies and thermal post-treatments, to improve the machinability of AM alloys by tailoring their microstructure.
Powder bed fusion