Real-Time FPGA/CPU-Based Simulation of a Full-Electric Vehicle Integrated with a High-Fidelity Electric Drive Model
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2022

Real-time simulations refer to the simulations of a physical system where model equations for one time-step are solved within the same time period as in reality. An FPGA/CPU-based real-time simulation platform is presented in this paper, with a full-electric vehicle model implemented in a central processing unit (CPU) board and an electric drive model implemented in a field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) board. It has been a challenge to interface two models solved with two different processors. In this paper, one open-loop and three closed-loop interfaces are proposed. Real-time simulation results show that the best method is to transmit electric machine speed from the vehicle model to the electric derive model, with feedback electric machine torque calculated in FPGA. In addition, a virtual vehicle testing tool (CarMaker) is used when building the vehicle model, achieving more accurate modeling of vehicle subsystems. The presented platform can be used to verify advanced vehicle control functions during hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing. Vehicle anti-slip control is used as an example here. Finally, experiments were performed by connecting the real-time platform with a back-to-back electric machine test bench. Results of torque, rotor speed, and d&q axis currents are all in good agreement between simulations and experiments.

Real-time simulation

Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL)

Battery electric vehicle (BEV)


Bowen Jiang

Chalmers, Elektroteknik, Elkraftteknik

Nimananda Sharma

Chalmers, Elektroteknik, Elkraftteknik

Yujing Liu

Chalmers, Elektroteknik, Elkraftteknik

Chuan Li

Student vid Chalmers

Xiaoliang Huang

Chalmers, Elektroteknik, Elkraftteknik


1996-1073 (ISSN) 19961073 (eISSN)

Vol. 15 5 1824

Integrated Modular Distributed Drivetrain for Electric/Hybrid Vehicles

Europeiska kommissionen (EU) (EC/H2020/769989), 2017-10-01 -- 2019-09-30.




Annan elektroteknik och elektronik



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