Increasing productivity of laser powder bed fusion manufactured Hastelloy X through modification of process parameters
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2022

One of the factors limiting the use of additive manufacturing, particularly powder bed processes, is their low productivity. An approach to increasing laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) build rate without costly hardware modifications is to alter process parameters. This study evaluates the possibilities to increase build rates through this route without compromising material quality. Equations for productivity are derived based on process parameters and build geometry, and applied on the process window for Hastelloy X in LPBF. It is demonstrated that virtually flaw-free parts can be printed at build rates that differ up to tenfold. To investigate potential variations in the microstructure and performance, Hastelloy X specimens manufactured at varying build rates were characterized. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis revealed that the specimen built at the lowest rate shows strong texture with columnar grains, while the specimen built at the highest rate presents significantly more random orientation and evident melt pool contours with pockets of very fine grains at the bottom. Despite the major differences in microstructure, the tensile properties do not necessarily vary substantially. Thus, the results indicate that the build rate of LPBF Hastelloy X can be significantly varied based on process parameters, still yielding consistent mechanical properties.



Nickel-based superalloy

Mechanical properties

Build rate



Claudia de Andrade Schwerz

Chalmers, Industri- och materialvetenskap, Material och tillverkning

Fiona Schulz

Chalmers, Industri- och materialvetenskap, Material och tillverkning

Elanghovan Natesan

Chalmers, Industri- och materialvetenskap, Material och tillverkning

Lars Nyborg

Chalmers, Industri- och materialvetenskap, Material och tillverkning

Journal of Manufacturing Processes

1526-6125 (ISSN)

Vol. 78 231-241

Additive Manufacturing using Metal Pilot Line (MANUELA)

Europeiska kommissionen (EU) (EC/H2020/820774), 2018-10-01 -- 2022-09-30.


Bearbetnings-, yt- och fogningsteknik

Kemiska processer




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