Comparing emissions of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and metals from marine fuels and scrubbers
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2021

In January 2020, new global regulations were implemented to limit the maximum sulphur content in marine fuels. As an alternative to switch to compliant fuels, the regulations allow for installations of exhaust gas cleaning systems, e.g. scrubbers, that enables a continued use of less expensive heavy fuel oils (HFOs). Characterization of scrubber discharge water shows that the acidified water also becomes enriched with contaminants, and large quantities of metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are thus being discharged directly to the marine environment. When emissions of contaminants to the atmosphere and the marine environment are evaluated simultaneously, the results show that HFO, with scrubbers installed, generates higher emission factors of both metals and PAHs compared to MGO. This highlights the importance of including both the marine and the atmospheric perspective when comparing environmental loads and impact of contaminants from shipping.

Emission factors


Polyaromatic hydrocarbons

Environmental load

Marine fuels

Heavy metals


Anna Lunde Hermansson

Chalmers, Mekanik och maritima vetenskaper, Maritima studier

Ida-Maja Hassellöv

Chalmers, Mekanik och maritima vetenskaper, Maritima studier

Jana Moldanova

IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet

Erik Ytreberg

Chalmers, Mekanik och maritima vetenskaper, Maritima studier

Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment

1361-9209 (ISSN)

Vol. 97 102912

Evaluation, control and Mitigation of the EnviRonmental impacts of shippinG Emissions (EMERGE)

Europeiska kommissionen (EU) (EC/H2020/874990), 2020-02-01 -- 2024-01-31.


Annan naturresursteknik

Marin teknik




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