On surface carbides in low-temperature carburized austenitic stainless steels
Journal article, 2020

Surface carbides are occasionally found at the surface of austenitic stainless steels subjected to low-temperature carburizing surface treatments which are intended to induce an interstitially supersaturated surface layer. The crystallographic nature and chemical composition of the carbides can have a significant influence on the surface properties, especially on the corrosion resistance of the steel. However, their phase identification and chemical characterization via conventional methods (e.g. X-ray diffraction) is difficult due to their complex structure and metastable nature. In this paper, a combined metallographic and electron microscopic approach is applied to characterize the morphology and chemical composition of surface carbides found on AISI 304L and SS2343 after the same Kolsterising® treatment. Exclusively M5C2, also known as Hägg or χ-carbide was found at the surface of 304L, preferentially oriented along (111) deformation bands. In SS2343, however, χ-carbide coexisted with M7C3 (or ω-carbides) and M23C6. The carbides had preferential orientation relationships with the matrix, suggesting a carbide evolution during carburizing. All the carbides show elemental partitioning, with Cr enrichment and Ni depletion. A microstructure development sequence regarding precipitation and growth of surface carbides is proposed in this paper.

Orientation relationships

Carbide

Low-temperature carburizing

Microscopy

Precipitation

EBSD

Author

Giulio Maistro

Uddeholms AB

Yiming Yao

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Materials and manufacture

Uta Klement

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Materials and manufacture

Lars Nyborg

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Materials and manufacture

Yu Cao

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Materials and manufacture

Materials Characterization

1044-5803 (ISSN)

Vol. 167 110462

Subject Categories

Materials Engineering

Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology

Materials Chemistry

Metallurgy and Metallic Materials

Corrosion Engineering

Areas of Advance

Production

Materials Science

DOI

10.1016/j.matchar.2020.110462

More information

Latest update

11/10/2020