Trajectory-Following and Off-Tracking Minimization of Long Combination Vehicles: A Comparison Between Nonlinear and Linear Model Predictive Control
Journal article, 2023

In this paper, we compared the linear and nonlinear motion prediction models of a long combination vehicle (LCV). We designed a nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) for trajectory-following and off-tracking minimisation of the LCV. The used prediction model allowed coupled longitudinal and lateral dynamics together with the possibility of a combined steering, propulsion and braking control of those vehicles in long prediction horizons and in all ranges of forward velocity. For LCVs where the vehicle model is highly nonlinear, we showed that the control actions calculated by a linear time-varying model predictive control (LTV-MPC) are relatively close to those obtained by the NMPC if the guess linearisation trajectory is sufficiently close to the nonlinear solution, in contrast to linearising for specific operating conditions that limit the generality of the designed function. We discussed how those guess trajectories can be obtained allowing off-line fixed time-varying model linearisation that is beneficial for real-time implementation of MPC in LCVs with long prediction horizons. The long prediction horizons are necessary for motion planning and trajectory-following of LCVs to maintain stability and tracking quality, e.g. by optimally reducing the speed prior to reaching a curve, and by generating control actions within the actuators limits.

direct optimal control

motion control

nonlinear model predictive control

vehicle dynamics

long combination vehicles

off-tracking minimization


Toheed Ghandriz

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences (M2), Vehicle Engineering and Autonomous Systems

Volvo Group

Bengt J H Jacobson

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences (M2), Vehicle Engineering and Autonomous Systems

Peter Nilsson

Volvo Group

Leo Laine

Volvo Group

Vehicle System Dynamics

0042-3114 (ISSN) 1744-5159 (eISSN)

Optimal Distributed Propulsion

VINNOVA, 2015-10-01 -- 2019-12-31.

Swedish Energy Agency (41037-1), 2015-10-01 -- 2019-12-31.

High Capacity Vehicles with ELectrically PropellEd Dolly (HELPED)

Swedish Energy Agency (2020-024829p51946-1), 2021-04-01 -- 2023-09-30.

Subject Categories

Mechanical Engineering

Applied Mechanics

Vehicle Engineering

Control Engineering

Driving Forces

Sustainable development

Innovation and entrepreneurship

Areas of Advance




Basic sciences

Learning and teaching

Pedagogical work



More information

Latest update