Ground-Based measurements of the 2014-2015 holuhraun volcanic cloud (Iceland)
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2018

The 2014-2015 Bárðarbunga fissure eruption at Holuhraun in central Iceland was distinguished by the high emission of gases, in total 9.6 Mt SO 2 , with almost no tephra. This work collates all ground-based measurements of this extraordinary eruption cloud made under particularly challenging conditions: remote location, optically dense cloud with high SO 2 column amounts, low UV intensity, frequent clouds and precipitation, an extensive and hot lava field, developing ramparts, and high-latitude winter conditions. Semi-continuous measurements of SO 2 flux with three scanning DOAS instruments were augmented by car traverses along the ring-road and along the lava. The ratios of other gases/SO 2 were measured by OP-FTIR, MultiGAS, and filter packs. Ratios of SO 2 /HCl = 30-110 and SO 2 /HF = 30-130 show a halogen-poor eruption cloud. Scientists on-site reported extremely minor tephra production during the eruption. OPC and filter packs showed low particle concentrations similar to non-eruption cloud conditions. Three weather radars detected a droplet-rich eruption cloud. Top of eruption cloud heights of 0.3-5.5 km agl were measured with ground-and aircraft-based visual observations, web camera and NicAIR II infrared images, triangulation of scanning DOAS instruments, and the location of SO 2 peaks measured by DOAS traverses. Cloud height and emission rate measurements were critical for initializing gas dispersal simulations for hazard forecasting.

SO2

Cloud height

Fissure eruption

Gas

Holuhraun

Bárðarbunga

Eruption monitoring

Författare

M. A. Pfeffer

Icelandic Meteorological Office

Baldur Bergsson

Icelandic Meteorological Office

S. Barsotti

Icelandic Meteorological Office

Gerður Stefánsdóttir

Icelandic Meteorological Office

Bo Galle

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Mikrovågs- och optisk fjärranalys

Santiago Arellano

Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Mikrovågs- och optisk fjärranalys, Optisk fjärranalys

Alexander Vladimir Conde Jacobo

Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Mikrovågs- och optisk fjärranalys, Optisk fjärranalys

Amy Donovan

King's College London

Evgenia Ilyinskaya

University of Leeds

Mike Burton

University of Manchester

A. Aiuppa

Universita degli Studi di Palermo

Rachel C.W. Whitty

University of Leeds

Isla Simmons

University of Edinburgh

Þórður Arason

Icelandic Meteorological Office

Elín B. Jónasdóttir

Icelandic Meteorological Office

Nicole S. Keller

Environment Agency of Iceland

Richard F. Yeo

AUV Consultants

Hermann Arngrímsson

Icelandic Meteorological Office

Þorsteinn Jóhannsson

Environment Agency of Iceland

Mary K. Butwin

Háskóli Íslands

Icelandic Meteorological Office

Robert A. Askew

Háskóli Íslands

Stéphanie Dumont

Háskóli Íslands

Universidade da Beira Interior

Sibylle Von Löwis

Icelandic Meteorological Office

Þorgils Ingvarsson

Icelandic Meteorological Office

Alessandro La Spina

Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia

Helen Thomas

University of Bristol

Fred Prata

AIRES Pty Ltd

Fausto Grassa

Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia

G. Giudice

Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia

Andri Stefánsson

Háskóli Íslands

Frank Marzano

Sapienza, Università di Roma

Mario Montopoli

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche

Luigi Mereu

Sapienza, Università di Roma

Geosciences (Switzerland)

2076-3263 (eISSN)

Vol. 8 29

Ämneskategorier

Meteorologi och atmosfärforskning

Atom- och molekylfysik och optik

Fusion, plasma och rymdfysik

DOI

10.3390/geosciences8010029