Food and Nutrient Intake during Pregnancy in Relation to Maternal Characteristics: Results from the NICE Birth Cohort in Northern Sweden
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2019
Linkages between diet and other lifestyle factors may confound observational studies. We used cluster analysis to analyze how the intake of food and nutrients during pregnancy co-varies with lifestyle, clinical and demographic factors in 567 women who participated in the NICE (nutritional impact on immunological maturation during childhood in relation to the environment) birth-cohort in northern Sweden. A food frequency questionnaire, Meal-Q, was administered in pregnancy Week 34, and the reported food and nutrient intakes were related to maternal characteristics such as age, education, rural/town residence, parity, pre-pregnancy smoking, first-trimester BMI, allergy and hyperemesis. Two lifestyle-diet clusters were identified: (1) High level of education and higher age were related to one another, and associated with a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and fish, and (2) smoking before pregnancy and higher BMI in early pregnancy were related to one another and associated with a diet that contained white bread, French fries, pizza, meat, soft drinks, candy and snacks. More than half of the women had lower-than-recommended daily intake levels of vitamin D, folate, selenium, and iodine. Complex lifestyle-diet interactions should be considered in observational studies that link diet and pregnancy outcome.