Hierarchical Control of Electric Bus Lines
Paper i proceeding, 2020
In this paper, we propose a hierarchical control strategy for a line of electric buses with the double objective of minimizing energy consumption and providing regular service to the passengers. The state-space model for the buses is formulated in space rather than in time, which alleviates the need for integer decision variables to capture their behavior at bus stops. This enables us to first assemble a fully-centralized multi-objective line problem in the continuous nonlinear optimization framework. It is then reassembled into a hierarchical structure with two levels of control in order to improve on scalability and reliability. This new supervisory structure consists of a centralized line level controller which handles the time headway regularity of the buses, and of decentralized bus level controllers which simultaneously manage the energy consumption of each individual bus. Our method demonstrates good battery energy savings and regularity performances when compared to a classical holding strategy.
Modeling and simulation of transportation systems
Nonlinear and optimal automotive control
Electric and solar vehicles