Modelling the construction and long-term response of Göta Tunnel
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2021

This paper presents a benchmark of a rate-dependent constitutive model for soft soils, implemented in a 2D finite element code, against the response of an instrumented excavation in sensitive clay: Göta Tunnel in Gothenburg. The monitoring data, which comprise time-series of pore water pressures, displacements, earth pressures and strut forces, provide valuable insights of the time-dependent response during the construction period. The long-term response, in terms of the ongoing settlement rates, is assessed using remote sensing data. The results of the numerical simulations demonstrate that the constitutive model, Creep-SCLAY1S, is capable of capturing the observed response. The trends of vertical and horizontal displacements are captured well until the stage of dewatering, and the evolution of pore pressures and earth pressures is computed with high accuracy, excluding peaks in the measurement values arising from pile and rock anchor installation. Most importantly, the results demonstrate that the rate-dependent model enables to model the complete service life of the tunnel, from construction of the excavation to the tunnel operation, with one unified model parameter set. Furthermore, the comparisons highlight the importance of assessing installation effects both in the choice of construction methods and modelling.


Soft clay

Constitutive modelling

Earth pressure




Johannes Tornborg

Chalmers, Arkitektur och samhällsbyggnadsteknik, Geologi och geoteknik


Mats Karlsson

Chalmers, Arkitektur och samhällsbyggnadsteknik, Geologi och geoteknik

Anders Kullingsjö


Minna Karstunen

Chalmers, Arkitektur och samhällsbyggnadsteknik, Geologi och geoteknik

Computers and Geotechnics

0266-352X (ISSN) 1873-7633 (eISSN)

Vol. 134 104027

Digital Twin Cities Centre

VINNOVA (2019-00041), 2020-02-29 -- 2024-12-31.

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Tidsberoende effekter av schakt i lös lera

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