Data mining of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants engineered for increased tolerance towards inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates
Reviewartikel, 2022

The use of renewable plant biomass, lignocellulose, to produce biofuels and biochemicals using microbial cell factories plays a fundamental role in the future bioeconomy. The development of cell factories capable of efficiently fermenting complex biomass streams will improve the cost-effectiveness of microbial conversion processes. At present, inhibitory compounds found in hydrolysates of lignocellulosic biomass substantially influence the performance of a cell factory and the economic feasibility of lignocellulosic biofuels and chemicals. Here, we present and statistically analyze data on Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants engineered for altered tolerance towards the most common inhibitors found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates: acetic acid, formic acid, furans, and phenolic compounds. We collected data from 7971 experiments including single overexpression or deletion of 3955 unique genes. The mutants included in the analysis had been shown to display increased or decreased tolerance to individual inhibitors or combinations of inhibitors found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Moreover, the data included mutants grown on synthetic hydrolysates, in which inhibitors were added at concentrations that mimicked those of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Genetic engineering aimed at improving inhibitor or hydrolysate tolerance was shown to alter the specific growth rate or length of the lag phase, cell viability, and vitality, block fermentation, and decrease product yield. Different aspects of strain engineering aimed at improving hydrolysate tolerance, such as choice of strain and experimental set-up are discussed and put in relation to their biological relevance. While successful genetic engineering is often strain and condition dependent, we highlight the conserved role of regulators, transporters, and detoxifying enzymes in inhibitor tolerance. The compiled meta-analysis can guide future engineering attempts and aid the development of more efficient cell factories for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass.

Strain improvement

Metabolic engineering

Acetic acid


Lignocellulosic biomass



Systems biology


Elena Cámara

Chalmers, Biologi och bioteknik, Industriell bioteknik

Lisbeth Olsson

Chalmers, Biologi och bioteknik, Industriell bioteknik

Jan Zrimec

Chalmers, Biologi och bioteknik, Systembiologi

Aleksej Zelezniak

Chalmers, Biologi och bioteknik, Systembiologi

Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab)

Cecilia Geijer

Chalmers, Biologi och bioteknik, Industriell bioteknik

Yvonne Nygård

Chalmers, Biologi och bioteknik, Industriell bioteknik

Biotechnology Advances

0734-9750 (ISSN)

Vol. 57 107947



Medicinsk bioteknologi (med inriktning mot cellbiologi (inklusive stamcellsbiologi), molekylärbiologi, mikrobiologi, biokemi eller biofarmaci)

Biokatalys och enzymteknik

Annan industriell bioteknik





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