Integrated Charging Scheduling and Operational Control for an Electric Bus Network
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2024

The last few years have seen the massive deployment of electric buses in many existing transit networks. However, the planning and operation of an electric bus system differ from that of a bus system with conventional vehicles, and some key problems have not yet been studied in the literature. In this work, we address the integrated operational control and charging scheduling problem for a network of electric buses with a limited opportunity charging capacity. We propose a hierarchical control framework to solve this problem, where the charging and operational decisions are taken jointly by solving a mixed-integer linear program in the high-level control layer. Since this optimization problem might become very large as more bus lines are considered, we propose to apply Lagrangian relaxation in such a way as to exploit the structure of the problem and enable a decomposition into independent subproblems. A local search heuristic is then deployed in order to generate good feasible solutions to the original problem. This entire Lagrangian heuristic procedure is shown to scale much better on transit networks with an increasing number of bus lines than trying to solve the original problem with an off-the-shelf solver. The proposed procedure is then tested in the high-fidelity microscopic traffic environment Vissim on a bus network constructed from an openly available dataset of the city of Chicago. The results show the benefits of combining the charging scheduling decisions together with the real-time operational control of the vehicles as the proposed control framework manages to achieve both a better level of service and lower charging costs over control baselines with predetermined charging schedules.

Electric buses

Lagrangian relaxation

Dual decomposition

Battery and charging

Charging scheduling

Operational planning

Optimal control


Rémi Lacombe

Chalmers, Elektroteknik, System- och reglerteknik

Nikolce Murgovski

Chalmers, Elektroteknik, System- och reglerteknik

Sébastien Gros

Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet

Balázs Adam Kulcsár

Chalmers, Elektroteknik, System- och reglerteknik

Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review

1366-5545 (ISSN)

Vol. 186 103549

ERGODIC: Kombinerade person- och godstransporter i förortstrafik

Europeiska kommissionen (EU) (F-ENUAC-2022-0003), 2023-10-01 -- 2026-09-30.

Europeiska kommissionen (EU) (F-DUT-2022-0078), 2023-10-01 -- 2026-09-30.

VINNOVA (ERGODIC), 2023-10-01 -- 2026-09-30.

Optimal energihantering för nätverk av elektrifierade bussar (OPNET)

Energimyndigheten (46365-1), 2018-10-01 -- 2021-12-31.





Transportteknik och logistik


Annan elektroteknik och elektronik



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