Blended modeling in commercial and open-source model-driven software engineering tools: A systematic study
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2023

Blended modeling aims to improve the user experience of modeling activities by prioritizing the seamless interaction with models through multiple notations over the consistency of the models. Inconsistency tolerance, thus, becomes an important aspect in such settings. To understand the potential of current commercial and open-source modeling tools to support blended modeling, we have designed and carried out a systematic study. We identify challenges and opportunities in the tooling aspect of blended modeling. Specifically, we investigate the user-facing and implementation-related characteristics of existing modeling tools that already support multiple types of notations and map their support for other blended aspects, such as inconsistency tolerance, and elevated user experience. For the sake of completeness, we have conducted a multivocal study, encompassing an academic review, and grey literature review. We have reviewed nearly 5000 academic papers and nearly 1500 entries of grey literature. We have identified 133 candidate tools, and eventually selected 26 of them to represent the current spectrum of modeling tools.

Modeling tools

Inconsistency tolerance

Model-driven development


Multi-view modeling


Istvan David

Université de Montréal

Malvina Latifaj

Mälardalens universitet

Jakob Pietron

Universität Ulm

Weixing Zhang

Göteborgs universitet

Federico Ciccozzi

Mälardalens universitet

Ivano Malavolta

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

Alexander Raschke

Universität Ulm

Jan-Philipp Steghöfer

Göteborgs universitet

Regina Hebig

Göteborgs universitet

Software and Systems Modeling

1619-1366 (ISSN) 1619-1374 (eISSN)

Vol. 22 1 415-447

Blandad modellering för förbättrad mjukvaru- och systemteknik

ITEA, 2019-11-01 -- 2023-03-31.




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Relaterade dataset

Replication package for "Blended Modeling in Commercial and Open-source Model-Driven Software Engineering Tools: A Systematic Study" [dataset]

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6402742

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