Transportation-mission-based Optimization of Heterogeneous Heavy-vehicle Fleet Including Electrified Propulsion
Journal article, 2021

Commercial-vehicle manufacturers design vehicles to operate over a wide range of transportation tasks and driving cycles. However, certain possibilities of reducing emissions, manufacturing and operational costs from end vehicles are neglected if the target range of transportation tasks is narrow and known in advance, especially in case of electrified propulsion. Apart from real-time energy optimization, vehicle hardware can be meticulously tailored to best fit a known transportation task.

As proposed in this study, a heterogeneous fleet of heavy-vehicles can be designed in a more cost- and energy-efficient manner, if the coupling between vehicle hardware, transportation mission, and infrastructure is considered during initial conceptual-design stages. To this end, a rather large optimization problem was defined and solved to minimize the total cost of fleet ownership in an integrated manner for a real-world case study. In the said case-study, design variables of optimization problem included mission, recharging infrastructure, loading--unloading scheme, number of vehicles of each type, number of trips, vehicle-loading capacity, selection between conventional, fully electric, and hybrid powertrains, size of internal-combustion engines and electric motors, number of axles being powered, and type and size of battery packs. This study demonstrated that by means of integrated fleet customization, battery-electric heavy-vehicles could strongly compete against their conventional combustion-powered counterparts. Primary focus has been put on optimizing vehicle propulsion, transport mission, infrastructure and fleet size rather than routing.

fleet sizing

heterogeneous heavy-vehicle fleet

hybrid and electric vehicles

logistics and electromobility

freight transportation

propulsion tailoring


Toheed Ghandriz

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences (M2), Vehicle Engineering and Autonomous Systems

Bengt J H Jacobson

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences (M2), Vehicle Engineering and Autonomous Systems

Manjurul Islam

Volvo Group

Jonas Hellgren

Volvo Group

Leo Laine

Volvo Group


1996-1073 (ISSN) 19961073 (eISSN)

Vol. 14 11 3221

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