Optimization of Channel Structures in InP HEMT Technology for Cryogenic Low-Noise and Low-Power Operation
Journal article, 2023

We report the impact from channel composition on the cryogenic low-noise performance at low dc power for a 100-nm gate-length InGaAs-InAlAs-InP high-electron mobility transistor (HEMT). Two indium (In) channel compositions, 65% and 80%, were studied by dc and RF characterization at 300 and 5 K. For the cryogenic low-noise optimization, it was important to increase the transconductance to gate–source capacitance ratio in the weak inversion region implying that a higher maximum cutoff frequency in the HEMT does not guarantee lower noise. The HEMT noise performance was obtained from noise measurements in a hybrid three-stage 4–8-GHz ( $\textit{C}$ -band) low-noise amplifier (LNA) down to 300- $\mu$ W dc power dissipation. While the HEMT LNA noise performance for both the channel compositions at 300 K was found to be comparable, the HEMT LNA at 5 K with 65% In channel showed a minimum noise temperature of 1.4 K, whereas the noise temperature in the HEMT LNA with 80% In channel HEMTs increased to 2.4 K. The difference in the noise became more pronounced at reduced dc power dissipation. The ultralow dc power of 300 $\mu$ W demonstrated for a cryogenic $\textit{C}$ -band LNA with an average noise temperature of 2.9 K and 24-dB gain is of interest for future qubit read-out electronics at 4 K.

indium (In) channel content

Indium phosphide

quantum computer


InP high-electron mobility transistor (HEMT)


dc power

low-noise amplifier (LNA)


III-V semiconductor materials

Logic gates





Eunjung Cha

Chalmers, Microtechnology and Nanoscience (MC2), Terahertz and Millimetre Wave Laboratory

Niklas Wadefalk

Low Noise Factory AB

Giuseppe Moschetti

Qamcom Research & Technology

Arsalan Pourkabirian

Low Noise Factory AB

Jörgen Stenarson

Low Noise Factory AB

Junjie Li

Chalmers, Microtechnology and Nanoscience (MC2), Terahertz and Millimetre Wave Laboratory

Dae Hyun Kim

Kyungpook National University

Jan Grahn

Chalmers, Microtechnology and Nanoscience (MC2), Terahertz and Millimetre Wave Laboratory

IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices

0018-9383 (ISSN) 15579646 (eISSN)

Vol. 70 5 2431-2436

Subject Categories

Other Physics Topics

Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering

Condensed Matter Physics



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