Quantifying rider posture variability in powered two- and three-wheelers for safety assessment
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2024

Objective: Injury outcomes for powered two- and three-wheeler (PTW) riders are influenced by the rider posture. To enable analysis of PTW rider accidents and development of protection systems, detailed whole-body posture data is needed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to fill this gap by providing collections of average male whole-body postures, including subpopulation variability, for different PTW types. This will enable future studies to explore the influence of PTW rider posture variation and to support safety system development. Methods: 3D photometric measurements of 51 anatomical landmarks were recorded on 20 (50th percentile male) volunteers in their preferred riding postures across three PTW types (naked, scooter, and touring). Following an outlier removal process, a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to calculate average postures and principal components (PCs), to describe the observed posture variation, for each PTW. The visualization of the PCs was facilitated through kinematic linkage representations, connecting anatomical landmarks and estimated joint centers to form segments and characteristic joint angles. Results: The first seven PCs explained 80% of the variance in posture for each of the three PTWs. Across PTWs, these PCs frequently described combinations of postural features including variation in fore-aft seat positions, pelvic tilt, spinal curvature, head position, and extremity flexion-extension. Analysis revealed distinct differences in average postures across the three PTWs, on average, 10 ± 9° for the characteristic joint angles within a min-to-max range between the three PTWs. However, for all three PTWs, the variability between volunteers in characteristic joint angles on the same PTW were on average more than twice as large within a ± 2 SD range (26 ± 11°). Conclusions: The results suggest that PTW rider posture variation must be addressed by involving simultaneous adjustments of multiple body parts, as described by each of the first seven PCs, as a direct consequence of the human body interconnectedness. Furthermore, the study’s findings challenge conventional assumptions that the relative distance between PTWs’ handlebar, seat, and foot support predominantly influences rider postures. Instead, the research demonstrates that individual variability has a substantial influence on rider posture and should be considered in PTW safety development.

powered two- and three-wheeler

principal component analysis

vulnerable road user


posture variability


Linus Lundin

Chalmers, Mekanik och maritima vetenskaper, Fordonssäkerhet

Maria Oikonomou

Aristotelio Panepistimio Thessalonikis

Athanasios Lioras

BETA CAE Systems S.A.

Athanassios Mihailidis

Aristotelio Panepistimio Thessalonikis

Bengt Pipkorn

Autoliv AB

Chalmers, Mekanik och maritima vetenskaper, Fordonssäkerhet

Lambros Rorris

BETA CAE Systems International AG

Mats Svensson

Chalmers, Mekanik och maritima vetenskaper, Fordonssäkerhet

Johan Iraeus

Chalmers, Mekanik och maritima vetenskaper, Fordonssäkerhet

Traffic Injury Prevention

1538-9588 (ISSN) 1538-957X (eISSN)

Vol. In Press


Transportteknik och logistik




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